**1. Cumulative Returns**

Cumulative returns represent the total gain or loss generated by a trading strategy over a specific period. This metric provides a snapshot of the overall performance of the strategy, helping traders understand its profitability. While cumulative returns offer a high-level view of performance, they should be analysed alongside other metrics to gain a comprehensive understanding of risk and volatility.

**2. Annualised Return**

Annualised return extrapolates the performance of a trading strategy over one year, providing a standardised way to compare different strategies or assets. This metric is particularly useful for assessing the long-term viability of a strategy. By annualising returns, traders can better gauge the expected yearly growth of their investments.

**3. Sharpe Ratio**

The Sharpe Ratio is a measure of risk-adjusted return, calculated by dividing the excess return of a strategy by its standard deviation. During algo trading backtesting, a higher Sharpe Ratio indicates that a strategy is providing more return per unit of risk, making it a crucial metric for comparing different strategies.

**4. Sortino Ratio**

Similar to the Sharpe Ratio, the Sortino Ratio also measures risk-adjusted return but focuses on downside risk. It is calculated by dividing the excess return by the downside deviation. In algo backtest, this metric is particularly useful for strategies that aim to minimise losses rather than simply maximising returns. By emphasising downside risk, the Sortino Ratio provides a more accurate reflection of a strategy’s performance during negative market conditions.

**5. Maximum Drawdown**

Maximum drawdown represents the largest peak-to-trough decline in the value of a portfolio, highlighting the worst-case scenario for a strategy. This metric is essential for understanding the potential risks and the resilience of a trading strategy under adverse market conditions. During backtesting algorithmic trading, traders often use maximum drawdown to set risk limits and evaluate the psychological endurance required to stick with a strategy during downturns.

**6. Calmar Ratio**

The Calmar Ratio is a performance metric that compares the annualised return of a strategy to its maximum drawdown. This ratio provides insight into the risk-adjusted performance of a strategy, emphasising the importance of managing drawdowns. A higher Calmar Ratio indicates a more favourable return-to-risk profile, making it a valuable metric for assessing the robustness of a strategy.

**7. Win Rate**

The win rate is the percentage of profitable trades out of the total number of trades executed by a strategy. This metric offers a straightforward measure of a strategy’s success rate. While a high win rate is desirable, it should be evaluated in conjunction with other metrics such as the average profit per trade and risk-reward ratios to ensure the strategy’s overall effectiveness.

**8. Average Profit/Loss per Trade**

This metric calculates the average profit or loss generated by each trade executed by the strategy. It helps traders understand the profitability of individual trades and provides insight into the efficiency of the strategy. Analysing the average profit/loss per trade on a backtesting platform can help identify areas for improvement and optimise the strategy for better performance.

**9. Profit Factor**

The profit factor is the ratio of the total profits to the total losses generated by a trading strategy. A profit factor greater than one indicates that the strategy is profitable, while a value less than one suggests a loss-making strategy. This metric provides a clear measure of the strategy’s overall profitability and helps traders compare different strategies on a common scale.

**10. Exposure**

Exposure measures the amount of capital allocated to the market relative to the total capital available. It provides insight into the level of market participation and the associated risks. By monitoring exposure, during algo trading backtesting, traders can ensure that they are not over-leveraging their positions and can maintain a balanced portfolio.

**11. Alpha**

Alpha represents the excess return of a strategy over a benchmark index or risk-free rate. This metric helps traders evaluate the performance of their strategy relative to the market or other benchmarks. A positive alpha indicates that the strategy is outperforming the benchmark, while a negative alpha suggests underperformance.

**12. Beta**

Beta measures the sensitivity of a strategy’s returns to the movements of the overall market. A beta greater than one indicates that the strategy is more volatile than the market, while a beta less than one suggests lower volatility. This metric is essential for understanding the risk profile of a strategy and its correlation with market movements.

**13. Volatility**

Volatility measures the degree of variation in the returns of a trading strategy over time. High volatility indicates large fluctuations in returns, which can signify higher risk. By tracking volatility, traders can assess the stability of their strategy and make informed decisions about risk management.

**14. Turnover Rate**

The turnover rate measures the frequency at which assets are bought and sold within a portfolio. High turnover rates can lead to increased transaction costs, which can erode profits. Monitoring the turnover rate helps traders understand the cost implications of their strategy and optimise it for cost efficiency.

**15. Transaction Costs**

Transaction costs include all fees and expenses incurred while executing trades, such as brokerage fees, commissions, and slippage. These costs can significantly impact the net returns of a strategy. By tracking transaction costs, traders can ensure that their strategy remains cost-effective and identify opportunities to reduce expenses.In algorithmic trading, on a backtesting platform in India, like uTrade Algos, and elsewhere, algo backtesting is a vital process that helps traders evaluate the performance and viability of their strategies. By diligently tracking key metrics traders can gain comprehensive insights into the strengths and weaknesses of their strategies. These metrics provide a holistic view of performance, risk, and cost, enabling traders to optimise their strategies for better outcomes. As the financial markets continue to evolve, the ability to backtest effectively and track these critical metrics will remain an indispensable skill for successful algorithmic trading.